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Seminal Graphics

Pioneering Efforts That Shaped The Field

Edited by Rosalee Wolfe

A juried collection of forty-eight of the most important papers in the computer graphics field, including many older documents difficult to find elsewhere.
Perfect-bound, 445pp.

ISBN 1-58113-052-X
ACM Order Number 435985

Available from ACM Member Services by electronic mail at, by telephone at 1-800-342-6626 (USA and Canada) or 1-212-626-0500 (world-wide), or through the ACM e-store.

Table of Contents


  • Algorithm for Computer Control of a Digital Plotter
    J. Bresenham

  • Be Vision, a Package of IBM 7090 FORTRAN Programs to Drive Views of Combinations of Plane and Quadric Surfaces
    R. Weiss

  • The Notion of Quantitative Invisibility and the Machine Rendering of Solids
    A. Appel

  • A Solution to the Hidden Surface Problem
    M. Newell, R. Newell and T. Sancha

  • Computer Display of Curved Surfaces
    E. Catmull

  • Hierarchical Geometric Models for Visible Surface Algorithms
    J. Clark

  • Casting Curved Shadows on Curved Surfaces
    L. Williams


  • The Antialiasing Problem in Computer-Generated Shaded Images
    F. Crow
  • Pyramidal Parametrics
    L. Williams

  • Distributed Raytracing
    R. Cook, T. Porter and L. Carpenter


  • A System for Computer Generated Movies
    E. Catmull
  • Computer Generated Animation of Faces
    F. Parke

  • Interactive Skeleton Techniques for Enhancing Motion Dynamics in Key Frame Animation
    N. Burtnyk and M. Wein

  • Computational Modeling for the Computer Animation of Legged Figures
    M. Girard and A. Maciejewski

  • Principles of Animation as Applied to 3D Character Animation
    J. Lasseter

  • Flocks, Herds, and Schools: A Distributed Behavior Model
    C. Reynolds


  • Real-Time Display of Computer Generated Half-Tone Perspective Pictures
    G. Romney, G. Watkins and D. Evans

  • On the Design of Display Processors
    T. Myer and I. Sutherland

  • A Head-Mounted Three-Dimensional Display
    I. Sutherland

  • Scanned Display of Computer Graphics
    M. Noll

  • Distributing A Visible Surface Algorithm Over Multiple Processors
    H. Fuchs

  • A Random-Access Video Frame Buffer
    J. Kajiya, I. Sutherland and E. Cheadle

  • The Geometry Engine: A VLSI Geometry System for Graphics
    J. Clark


  • Continuous Shading of Curved Surfaces
    H. Gouraud
  • Illumination for Computer Generated Pictures
    B. Phong

  • Models of Light Reflection for Computer Synthesized Pictures
    J. Blinn

  • An Improved Illumination Model for Shaded Display
    T. Whitted

  • Shade Trees
    R. Cook

  • Modeling the Interaction of Light Between Diffuse Surfaces
    C. Goral, K. Torrence, D. Greenberg and B. Battaile

  • An Image Synthesizer
    K. Perlin

  • The Rendering Equation
    J. Kajiya

  • Ray Tracing JELL-O(tm) Brand Gelatin
    P. Heckbert

  • A Progressive Refinement Approach to Fast Radiosity Image Generation
    M. Cohen, S. Chen, J. Wallace and D. Greenberg


  • Behaviour of Recursive Division Surfaces Near Extraordinary Points
    D. Doo and M. Sabin

  • Recursively Generated B-spline Surfaces on Arbitrary Topological Meshes
    E. Catmull and J. Clark

  • Computer Rendering of Stochastic Models
    A. Fournier, D. Fussell and L. Carpenter

  • Particle Systems: A Technique for Modeling a Class of Fuzzy Objects
    W. Reeves

  • Global and Local Deformations of Solid Primitives
    A. Barr

Rendering from Samples

  • Texture and Reflection in Computer Generated Images
    J. Blinn and M. Newell

  • Color Image Quantization for Frame Buffer Display
    P. Heckbert

  • Marching Cubes: A High Resolution 3D Surface Construction Algorithm
    W. Lorensen and H. Cline

  • Compositing Digital Images
    T. Porter and T. Duff

  • Volume Rendering
    R. Drebin, L. Carpenter and P. Hanrahan

  • Feature-Based Image Metamorphosis
    T. Beier and S. Neely

  • View Interpolation for Image Synthesis
    S. Chen and L. Williams


  • Sketchpad: A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System
    I. Sutherland

  • A System for Interactive Graphical Programming
    W. Newman

  • The Art of Natural Graphic Man-Machine Conversation
    J. Foley and V. Wallace

Leo Hourvitz, Director for Communications
Last modified: June, 2002